Home Nutrition symptoms, list of foods, who can get it?

symptoms, list of foods, who can get it?

symptoms, list of foods, who can get it?

Ground steak, cheese, smoked salmon… Various foods can be contaminated with the Listeria bacteria, which is responsible for listeriosis, and make you sick. This food poisoning is especially dangerous in pregnant women, but not only that.

​​​​Cheese, smoked salmon, steak… Listeria bacteria can contaminate and cause several categories of food listeriosisa disease that could be strict and from whom The incubation period can be up to 8 weeks. Pregnant women are especially at risk: Indeed, pregnant women infected through food cans pass the bacteria on to the fetus by transplacental passage or during delivery by passage through the infected genital tract. What are the symptoms to look out for ? What should we do when we present one?

What is listeria (listeriosis)?

Listeria monocytogenes is the name of the bacteria responsible for listeriosis, a rare but potentially serious infection.Listeriosis is mainly transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food by bacteria present in the soil, vegetation and water“explains Dr. Jacques Amselem, general practitioner in Seine-et-Marne. Fortunately, it has little consequence for the majority of individuals. Two exceptions:

  • At the pregnant woman, it may go unnoticed but lead to spontaneous abortion or premature birth, and her baby.
  • At the newborn, Listeriosis can cause skin, respiratory or neurological disorders.

How many cases of listeriosis in France?

Human listeriosis is a notifiable disease in France since 1998: the doctor or medical analysis laboratory must inform the health authorities when it discovers a case of listeriosis. Its incidence decreased until 2001 and then stabilized between 2001 and 2006 has increased steadily since 2006 To reach 300 to 400 cases of invasive listeriosis annually in France by 2023. It is the second cause of food-related death in France. More than 80% occur in vulnerable people (pregnant women and newborns, people over 65 years old, people with weakened immune systems).

What symptoms do listeriosis cause?

Because the bacteria can contaminate various types of food, many people quite often ingest small amounts of L. monocytogenes without developing symptoms, the researcher recalled.Handles. When it causes illness, so do the symptoms associated with listeriosis intestine and stomach. Among the signs:

  • diarrhea,
  • stomach ache,
  • nausea, vomiting
  • fever, headache and body aches.

In a pregnant womanlisteriosis manifests itself with flu-like symptoms such as isolated fever, chills, lower back pain.

Symptoms of listeriosis
Description of listeriosis in humans. © ANSES

What is the incubation period of listeriosis?

Incubation can last from several days to 8 weeks. In general that is true 10 to 28 days.

Pollution is caused by consumption of contaminated food over there listeria (poorly washed vegetables, meats, raw fish… See full list below). Unlike other bacteria, it can multiply even when food is kept in the refrigerator. Cooking destroys the bacteria. Therefore, it is advisable to cook meat and fish thoroughly. Above 65°C the bacteria are killedindicates the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

What foods can cause listeriosis?

  • Raw or smoked fish
  • Shellfish and crustaceans
  • The meats
  • Surimi
  • Raw milk
  • Raw milk cheeses
  • Raw sprouted seeds…

To protect themselves from this infection, pregnant women should avoid consuming the most contaminated foods fish, raw or smoked, and shellfish“, recommends Dr. Amselem. Surimi, cold cuts (rillettes, foie gras, etc.), raw milk and raw milk cheeses, raw sprouted seeds like those of soy, should also be discarded. It is also recommended to remove the rind from cheeses, thoroughly cook food of animal origin and thoroughly wash vegetables and aromatic herbs.

Who is especially at risk?

THE elderly (from 65 years), newborns and pregnant women are people who are particularly exposed to the risk of listeriosis. People with weakened immune systems are also more likely to contract listeriosis“, specifies Dr. Jacques Amselem. In particular, people undergoing immunosuppressive treatment, with an autoimmune disease, an infection with HIV For example. THE people suffering from cancerblood or liver disease (cirrhosis, etc.), insulin-dependent diabetics and those who suffered it organ transplant are also more at risk, underlines the handles . It is therefore necessary to be clear more vigilant with his people. In pregnant women, the infection can lead to: spontaneous abortion, a premature delivery or even an infection of the newborn (sepsis, lung, neurological, skin infection) with a 20% mortality rate for the child.

The diagnosis is made in people who show symptoms of infection. It is based on the isolation of the bacteria after a blood sample, a vaginal sample, gastric juice in a newborn or a lumbar puncture.

What is the treatment for listeriosis?

The treatment of listeriosis is based on administration of antibiotics“, reports the doctor. In 20% of cases, this contamination leads to death, usually in patients already weakened by another disease. In the two months after the consumption of contaminated food, it is recommended to monitor the symptoms. medical advice is necessary.

Can we die from it?

Yes, but listeriosis is especially dangerous in the vulnerable people mentioned above. With her “the symptoms of listeriosis can worsen and last for several weeks in the form of blood poisoning, meningitis, brain abscesses or even local infections. Neurological aftereffects can be observed and, according to studies, DE death rate due to infection varies from 20 to 30%Anses indicates. Listeriosis has a very high hospitalization rate (>97%).

  • Wash your hands thoroughly, especially after using the toilet and before preparing food. Hands are the main vectors of germs in food.
  • Adjust the temperature of your refrigerator (+4°C maximum) and cool food quickly after purchase.
  • Store leftovers in the refrigerator for less than 3 days.
  • Do not place unwrapped food directly on shelves.
  • Maintain good hygiene in the refrigerator.
  • Avoid cooked or raw charcuterie products that are not consumed (cooked or raw ham, jelly products, foie gras, pâté, rillettes, etc.), seafood products (smoked fish, tarama, raw shellfish, etc.) and certain products. milk, soft cheese with floury or washed rind), especially for people at risk, such as pregnant women.

Thanks to Dr. Jacques Amselem, general practitioner in Seine-et-Marne.


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